The Chromite Deposits Of Turkey

Ergunalp, Falih
Organization: The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
Pages: 11
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1944
REGULAR production of chrome in Turkey started in 1860 with the operation of the Bursa deposits (5, Fig. I). Others were discovered at Makri, near Fethiye (3, Fig. I). For 33 years Turkey remained the principal source of this mineral. While new discoveries were coming in elsewhere, Turkey's output declined until 1921, as a result of four successive wars, which ruined the economics of the country. In 1927 a revival came with the production of 18,000 tons. In that year the Société Minière de Fethiye was formed. This company now operates mines in the Vilayets of Aydin, Denizli, Burdur and Mentese, and it has reached a maximum production of between 80,000 and 90,000 tons annually. The Turkish output therefore increased from 29,000 tons in 1930 to 55,000 tons in 1931; and to 119,009 tons in 1934. The second phase in the increase in chrome production in Turkey came about in 1935, when the Government decided to reorganize and control the mineral industry of the country according to the principles of "government control" of the present regime. Up to that time the mineral resources of the country had been exploited by private concerns. In 1935, the M.T.A. (Maden Tetkik ve Arama) Institute (Institute of Mining Research and Geological Survey) was established by the Government to do the geological and geophysical survey work and discover new mineral resources for the country. Before the establishment of the M.T.A. Institute, the chief chrome-producing region was Fethiye (3 and 4, Fig. I). As a result of the extensive work of this bureau, many new chrome deposits have been discovered and are now in production. The operational field of the mineral industry was given to Eti Bank, another Government-sponsored and Government-controlled establishment. Eti Bank gradually took over the exploitation of existing mines by purchasing them from privately operated companies. Attention was first given to the Zonguldak collieries and to the different chrome deposits scattered over the country. The Guleman mines (14, Fig. 1) were developed and put in operation in 1936. Since then the bulk of Turkish chrome output has come from this mine, which yields the highest grade ore in the world (averaging 52 per cent Cr2O3). In 1939, the recently discovered chrome deposits to the north of Eskisehir went into production, yielding ore having a Cr2O3 content of 51 to 52 per cent. Today, more than ever, the efforts of both the M.T.A. Institute and the Eti Bank are concentrated on finding new deposits and placing them in operation. There are still many promising regions of the country that merit systematic surveying and prospecting for chrome ores. Thus it is probable that Turkey will continue to make noteworthy progress in chrome output. As the annual chrome production of
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