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|Relatively large amounts of hydrocarbons such as fuel oils are often needed in the flotation of low rank coals. The amount of oil can be decreased considerably by using surfactants as promoters. The reagents that are good candidates as surfactants to promote hydrophobicity can also act as emulsifying and wetting agents. Because the physical and chemical variables influence various subprocesses in different ways, their influence on the performance parameters is complex. The results of laboratory tests are presented to show that the dual role of reagents can be judiciously exploited to increase both the recovery and grade of the clean coal. The mode and order of reagent addition is critical in enhancing their efficacy as flotation promoters. The results demonstrate the benefits of proper conditioning of the pulp prior to flotation.|