Measurement of diesel tailpipe emissions for underground coal mine vehicles

Johnson, J. H. ; Carlson, D. H. ; Renders, C. F.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 14
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2000
Research was conducted at a western coal mine on a wide variety of underground mining vehicles to develop testing procedures for portable instrumentation monitoring of tailpipe concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM), carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO). DPM was measured using the Emissions Measurement Appa┬Čratus (EMA) developed by Michigan Technological University (MTU), and an ECOM-KL five-gas analyzer was used to measure gaseous tailpipe concentrations. Baseline concentrations of the tailpipe pollutants were measured using vehicle systems to load the engine. Concentrations before and after the water scrubber were measured and water scrubber efficiencies were estimated by calculation. Field measurement procedures were established. Heavy-duty vehicles with automatic transmissions were loaded using the torque converter to stall the engine. Consistent engine loading for light-duty vehicles with manual transmissions involved placing the transmission in neutral and adjusting the throttle to maintain a constant engine speed of 2,500 rpm. Tailpipe CO2 concentrations for Caterpillar 3306 and 3304 engines were compared to laboratory CO2 data from Caterpillar and MSHA to help determine if engine settings were correctly adjusted for operation at high altitudes. (Perfect agreement between the mine vehicle tailpipe and laboratory measurements would not be expected because of the differences in the test conditions.) DPM concentrations for light-duty vehicles ranged from about 20 to 160 mg/m3, and one light-duty vehicle averaged near 1,000 mg/m3. DPM concentrations for heavy-duty vehicles ranged from about 55 to 200 mg/m3. Widely ranging DPM concentrations for a particular vehicle type reflect the state of maintenance, fuel rate settings and different engine loading procedures as well as differences between samples collected upstream and downstream of the waterscrubber. The calculated DPM removal efficiencies due to the water scrubber varied considerably between vehicles, ranging from 13% to 51%. Calculations indicate that, under worst-case conditions, very large reductions in DPM may be required to meet the proposed DPM PEL of 0.15 mg/m3, even on vehicles with water scrubbers. In-mine ambient air studies, which are needed to actually measure the impact of the tailpipe concentrations on the work environment and the effect of mine ventilation on the dilution of DPM were not done in this first set of tests.
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