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|Because conventional (physical) methods of ore dressing are not suitable for reducing the phosphorus contents of high-phosphorous manganese ores from Andhra Pradesh (AP) and the adjoining area in southern Orissa, India, the adoption of chemical methods becomes imperative. An attempt was therefore made to reduce the phosphorus content of partially beneficiated manganese ores from AP by roasting with sodium carbonate and then leaching with hot water. However, due to the higher phosphorus contents of the manganese ores from Nishikhal mines in southern Orissa, and because of their apparent resistance to dephosphorization by roasting with Na2CO3 alone, a mixture of Na2CO3 and NaCl was found to be necessary to reduce the phosphorus content to below 0.15%. Free-energy calculations at 700°C and above indicated that Na2CO3 (or Na2O as the active component) is a more active reagent than NaCl. Various process parameters, such as the temperature and time of roasting, the amount of sodium carbonate and the temperature and time of leaching, were studied to arrive at the optimum conditions for dephosphorization.|