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|The Biological Oxidation (BlOX®) Process for the treatment of refractory gold ores was commercialized in 1988. During the last decade, the technology has developed into a mature, commercially viable process, with five additional operations commissioned, including operations at Sao Bento in Brazil, Harbour Lights and Wiluna in Australia, Ashanti in Ghana and Tamboraque in Peru. With ongoing development, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the process have both improved, making it an attractive alternative to conventional refractory treatment processes such as roasting and pressure oxidation. The bacterial culture is robust and can withstand the normal fluctuations experienced on an operating plant. The plants are simple to operate, making it ideal for remote areas. The scale-up potential of the process has been proven, and it can be applied to large refractory ore bodies. The process is environmentally friendly. Neutralization of plant effluents produces precipitates that comply with the most stringent environmental regulations.|