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|Environmental considerations related to the disposal of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) and the impacts of deforestation associated with the harvesting of timber for utilization as roof supports in mines should become more severe in the future, as landfill space and suitable timber reserves become more scarce. To help address these concerns, lightweight artificial supports, such as post and crib elements, that use large percentages of coal combustion byproducts as aggregate have been developed for use in underground mines. These structural products show equal or better engineering characteristics than timber, and they have the potential to replace timber support in underground mines. CCB-based ultralight structural material (ULSM) has also been developed and commercialized for use in the construction of ventilation stoppings in underground mines. The bulk densities of these blocks range from 0.40 to 0.64 g/cm3 (25 to 40 lb per cu ft) with more than 75% CCBs. Efforts are also given to develop and demonstrate large volume CCB-based subgrade improvement technique for road construction. Soil treated with SIUC fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) fly ash developed an immediate bearing value exceeding 25% with a swelling strain of less than I %, which is greater than untreated soils, and met Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) standard specifications. In this paper, development procedures, engineering characteristics and beneficial uses of CCB-based structural products are given.|