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|Field density studies carried out at the Phelps Dodge Chino Mine have found that truck-induced compaction is limited to the upper 2.4 m (8 ft) of an individual lift. Hydraulic properties of material compacted to field densities were determined in a laboratory setting. Saturated flow models were then run, simulating the effect of compacted zones within a stockpile. Modeling shows that compaction can prevent solution flow through large portions of the stockpile. This implies that care must be taken to ensure that ripping is carried out to a depth of at least 2.4 m (8 ft) across the entire stockpile to achieve uniform solution flow. Uniform solution flow will result in maximum leach recovery.|