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|With the goal of improving the strength characteristics of pneumatically emplaced material used for localized subsidence control, the binding additives fly ash, bentonite, and portland cement were examined for their effect on the support capabilities of coal refuse. It was found that, within certain concentration ranges, all three offered some increase in the ultimate strength of the backfilling mixture. However, portland cement gave the greatest percentage increases. Selection of the appropriate backfilling mixture will allow for the most economical and efficient subsidence control when pneumatic stowing is employed.|