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|In this review article, various approaches and mathematical models that have been used to simulate, design, and synthesize flotation circuits are examined. First, a brief review of flotation kinetics is presented which is followed by a discussion on simulation of flotation circuits. The existing literature on optimal design of flotation circuits has been divided into two broad categories. In the first category, a generalized integral approach is used wherein the optimal circuit design involves determination of both optimal interconnection of various flotation cells/ banks of cells in terms of structural parameters and optimal values of various operating parameters. In the second category, a conventional circuit configuration is assumed to be the best configuration; the optimal design here only means the optimization of operating parameters. The merits and demerits of these two approaches are discussed.|