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|Justifying refinery material handling equipment jointly involves economics and indirect benefits. The simple evaluation method is applicable when either retrofitting facilities or costing new metal refineries. The text includes points of interest regarding equipment selection as an additional guide. Although the copper industry was used as a basis, it is recognized that similarities in material handling may exist within the parallel electrolytic refining and winning of metals such as copper, nickel, lead, zinc, tin, and cobalt. The analysis of four major automatic systems, typically implemented in many tank houses, includes tabulated data plus a detailed description of additional benefits. General information regarding auxiliary material handling equipment and an overview are included for subject completeness. It is suggested that the quantitative and qualitative aspects presented may contribute to the basis for justification of automated material handling. The labor-oriented economics plus related intangible benefits described herein should provide incentives to modernize or replace manual operations where practical.|