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|INTRODUCTION Deformation measurements are some of the simplest and most useful measurements that can be made by the mining/rock mechanics engineer in assessing the sta¬bility of openings in rock. A number of tools and tech¬niques are presently available. This chapter will de¬scribe the most common instruments, their application, and present the equations needed for data reduction. MECHANICAL STRAIN GAGE Description of Instrument A mechanical strain gage of the Whittemore type shown in Fig. I is a useful instrument for measuring deformations of pillars, sidewalls, and roofs of under¬ground mines. Measurement gage lengths typically range from 51 to 254 mm (2 to 10 in.), and the dial indicator reads to 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.). The instru¬ment measures the deformation between precision gage points which are anchored in the rock. The anchor points are typically grouted in small holes drilled 12.5 mm (1/2 in.) or so deep into the rock. Strain a is calculated from the measured deformation AL with the equation [ ] where L is gage length. A necessary accessory for the instrument is a master bar normally made from invar steel having a low co¬efficient of thermal expansion. This bar allows one to check the instrument for changes in the mechanical zero point and to correct for temperature effects on the measuring instrument. The instrument is available from Soiltest, Inc. for a cost of approximately $340; the cost of the master bar is approximately $55; and nonreusable brass inserts which are anchored in the rock are nominally priced at $0.27 each. All prices are for 1978. Applications Two classes of applications may be considered, one where only one measurement direction is involved and the second where three measurement directions are em¬ployed. Applications where only one measurement di¬rection is necessary include: monitoring crack or frac¬ture separation or shear movement with anchor points on opposite sides of the discontinuity; measurement of vertical strain in a pillar or sidewall; and measurement of steel support deformations with anchors in the steel members. The more general application involves a strain ro¬sette consisting of three measurement directions which for convenience are oriented 1.04 rad (60°) apart to form an equilateral triangle as shown in Fig. 2. Strains in the three measurement directions [ ]|