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|The art of rock mechanics has been applied in various forms since early man first used caves for housing and fashioned rocks into weapons, tools, and utensils. The development of the science of rock mechanics has occurred in a slow but steady fashion due to the complexity of the materials, geometries, and loading conditions involved. It encompasses a great diversity of topics ranging from techniques for rock destruction to those required for rock strengthening or support, and as such enters daily into the life of the mining engineer. Although today rock mechanics can be confidently used in competent geologic structures, the degree of confidence diminishes as the structures become more complex and the number of geologic defects become more numerous. Even so, the principles still give a better estimate of the structural behavior of underground openings than ever before, and the persons responsible for design and control draw freely and often on the subject. For the most part, the civil engineer will spend more time and money on pre-design than the mining engi-|