Mine Hoists

Beerkirkcher, Gary
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 18
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1982
INTRODUCTION The mine hoisting equipment that is selected and installed at a mine is for the lifetime of the mine and, therefore, it is extremely important that a proper choice be made. Several types of mine hoist designs, including double drum hoists, single drum hoists, friction hoists, and various special designs of these, are available to¬day. Each has advantages and disadvantages and they should only be used in suitable applications. Drive systems for mine hoists must be evaluated together with the mechanical systems for each hoist application. It does not make sense to properly select the hoist mechanical system and then choose a drive system that turns out to be a bottleneck. MINE HOIST TYPES There are two basic types of mine hoists available in the world today: the drum hoist, on which the hoist rope is actually stored during the hoisting cycle, and the friction (Koepe) hoist, which merely passes the rope over the wheel during the hoisting process. Drum Hoists Single Drum Hoist: A single drum hoist (shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1) can be used as a service or production hoist with the cage or skip in balance with a counterweight (Figs. 2 and 3). It can efficiently service one or more levels, since the location of the counterweight at any time is not important. As a pro¬duction hoist with skips in balance, the single drum hoist is best used for single level hoisting. All rope adjustments for proper spotting must be done manually for the single drum hoist. This has to be done periodi¬cally to compensate for rope stretch. A variation of the single drum hoist is the divided drum hoist. If multilayer winding is necessary, the single drum hoist must have a divider to allow a sep¬arate compartment for each rope. If a counterweight is used with a divided drum application, the counter¬ weight rope can be wound on a smaller diameter (Fig. 4). Consequently, it moves a lesser distance than the main conveyance and rope adjustment problems are re¬duced. Double Drum Hoist: A double drum hoist in oper¬ation is shown in Fig. 5. Double Drum Hoist With One Drum Clutched: As a service hoist with cage and counterweight, a double drum hoist with one drum clutched (Fig. 6) can serve several levels efficiently. The advantage of having the clutched drum is that it allows rapid adjustment of ropes due to initial stretch. Some users may prefer the single drum hoist with manual rope adjustment, while others consider the added expense of the second drum and clutch is justified to make rope adjustments quickly. The value of this feature for a particular application should be discussed with the hoist manufacturer. As a production hoist with skips in balance for a multi¬level operation, the clutch can be adjusted for efficient hoisting from any level. Double Drum Hoists with Both Drums Clutched: There are also double drum hoists that have both drums clutched (Fig. 7). The main advantage claimed for this type of hoist is that if something happens in one of the two compartments, the hoist can operate in the other compartment to raise and lower men and sup¬plies. This feature is particularly favorable if there is only one shaft entrance to the mine. Multiple Drum Hoist: The multiple drum hoist, a South African innovation, is a type of drum hoist about which everyone should be aware. Basically, it uses two hoist ropes per conveyance which at great depths per¬mits use of smaller ropes and smaller drums. There are none in use in the United States today. However, they should be considered in very deep mines. Friction (Koepe) Hoists This hoist (Fig. 8) was introduced to the mining world by Frederick Koepe in 1877. The basic prin¬ciple of the friction hoist is that the hoist rope passing
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