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|Overshot loaders are loading machines which fill a front-mounted bucket by crowding and bucket lifting, passing the loaded bucket over the machine and throw¬ing the load into a haulage unit to the rear. The load is retained in the bucket as the load mass is accelerated in its path over the machine. At the point of discharge, the bucket is stopped suddenly and the load leaves the bucket, following the throw trajectory past the rear of the loader. Fig. 1 shows a typical overshot loader of this type. Overshot loaders were developed for loading in nar¬row drift headings and drawpoints, where it is impossible to place or pass a haulage unit alongside the loader. Haulage access is to the rear of all overshot loaders. The first overshot loader was developed in the early 1930s. The early machines were rail-mounted, air¬powered, and had small loading capacities. To this day, the same basic design configuration exists, and all suc¬cessful overshot loaders still use compressed air. Bucket sizes range from 0.14 to 0.59 m3 (5 to 21 cu ft). The most commonly used machines are rail-mounted, al¬though crawler versions are popular for special applica¬tions, particularly shaft sinking. Rubber-tired machines have found some application where a greater travel distance is required between the loading and discharge points. CONDITIONS INFLUENCING APPLICATION Roadway Type Rail-mounted loaders are used where soft bottom requires rail support or where the long haul is ac¬complished with rail. This situation usually occurs in civil tunnels or in mine drifts that will continue to utilize rail-bound main haulage after development work is completed. Crawler and rubber-tire mounted loaders are used where the roadway surface is rough and lateral travel beyond the range of rail-bound machines is required. Work Area Dimensions The largest rail-bound loaders can clean roadways as wide as 4 m (13 ft) from a single track. Wider headings require multiple trackage. Headroom require¬ments are dependent upon the path described by the bucket as it passes over the machine. The largest over¬shot loader requires approximately 3.4 m (11 ft) of headroom. It follows that the largest heading that can be driven by overshot loaders from a single set of rails is approximately 4 m (13 ft) wide and a minimum of 3.5 m (11.5 ft) high above the rail. The smallest rail-bound loaders can work efficiently in headings as small as 1.8 m (6 ft) wide by 1.8 m (6 ft) high above the rail.|