Cost Calculations for Timbered Stoping

Pugh, Gordon M. ; Rasmussen, David G.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1982
INTRODUCTION Square-set timbering of stopes developed from stull support methods because veins too wide for stulling were being mined. In general, the void caused by the stoping of the ore is filled with a system of interlocking timbers. Timber framework supports the wall rock, the mining operations, and provides access. A timbered stoping method can be used in all widths of veins at any dip. The timbering can be normal and parallel to the planes of the walls or at angles to these planes. Irregularly shaped ore bodies can be worked by timbered methods. Pinching or swelling of the vein will not adversely affect the method. Timbered stoping is especially advanta¬geous where weak ground is encountered in the vein or the wall rock. The ground is unsupported only until timber sets are stood. These stopes can be filled with sand or waste when desirable. The customary method of developing a square-set timbered stope with haulage drifts above and below and timbered raises on each endline is shown in Fig. 1. The drifts are timbered the full stoping length. The raises have two compartments with the manway and timber slide in one compartment and the chute in the other. The drifts and the raises cannot be widely spaced as handling timbers is an important consideration. Stoping can begin immediately above the drift timber and continue in both directions and upward from the raise. Breasting down each blast round for only one timber set laterally is the common practice. The blasted ore falls to a lower floor where it is slushed or trammed to the chute. Drilling can proceed on the upper floor while broken ore is being removed from the stope. As shown in Fig. 2, square-set timbering may be used in cut-and-fill stopes to support the back and walls until fill is added. There are various ways of developing an ore block for timbered stoping. Fig. 3 depicts the situation for the main haulage in the vein with an intermediate drift separated from it by a sill pillar. The ore is slushed into the chute connecting the two drifts. The situation in Fig. 4 is identical to that in Fig. 3 except that no sill pillar is used. In Fig. 5, the haulage drift development is done in the footwall with crosscuts driven to intersect the ore body. The intermediate drift development is above the crosscuts with a minimal sill pillar. The main bottleneck in timbered stoping is in the timbering process. Drilling in the stope is generally held up while timbering is done. Two or three men are re¬quired to do the timbering and an additional one or two men are needed to transport and raise or lower the tim¬ber. Good organization is essential to timbering. Skill must be exercised in standing the timber to support the ground and still maintain good production. COSTS AND PRODUCTIVITIES Development and stoping costs are presented in Tables 1 through 7 for the situations in Figs. 3 and 5,
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