Cost Calculations for Mechanized Shrinkage Stoping*

Pugh, Gordon M. ; Rasmussen, David G.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 15
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1982
INTRODUCTION Shrinkage stope mining can be employed in steeply dipping veins where both the wall and the vein material are sufficiently strong to stand with only minimal ground support. Shrinkage stope mining takes advantage of the swell in volume produced in breaking in-place ore. This expanded volume of ore is allowed to occupy part of the mined-out vein, and in so doing provides ground sup¬port and a working surface for the miners. Only enough of the ore is drawn after each stoping cut to allow work¬ing room. Not until the entire mining block has been broken is the full amount of broken ore drawn from the stope. DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES FOR SHRINKAGE STOPING The vein is developed into stoping blocks, each of which is 76 to 91 m (250 to 300 ft) in length and 61 m (200 ft) between levels. Level development, described later, is either on the vein or parallel to it with crosscuts periodically driven over to the vein. There are usually two exits from each stope. The first entry is a raise at one end driven either conventionally by raise climber, or by a raised borehole. Present practice is that this raise, put in from level to level, is either a 2.1- x 2.1-m (7- x 7-ft) Alimak raise or a 1.2- to 1.8-m (4- to 6-ft) diam borehole. Either raise system will require pro¬visions for an ore chute carried with the stope to the haulage level or the scram drift. At 9- to 12-m (30- to 40-ft) vertical intervals, dogholes are developed from the raise so that when stoping breaks back into these dogholes, timber or steel sets and necessary service facilities can be installed. The second entry to the stope may be either a similar raise at the stope endline, or more economically, a cribbed raise carried with the stope. As previously stated, development of the ore block is achieved by either drifting on the vein or by paralleling the vein with a footwall lateral and then crosscutting over to the vein at specified intervals. In the following discussion, three basic cases are illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. In Fig. 1, development is in the footwall by a 3- x 3-m (10- x 10-ft) trackless lateral. A heading is also driven on the ore and taken either full width or driven a standard size and slabbed to the vein width. Approxi¬mately 9-m (30-ft) long crosscuts on 7.6-m (25-ft) cen¬ters are driven from the lateral to the vein. For ease in muck handling they are usually put in on a slant rather than at right angles. A single orepass, located off the lateral and in the center of one stope block, can serve not only that stope, but also one on either side, up to a tramming distance of not more than 137 m (450 ft). Raises are put at the stope endlines on 91-m (300-ft) centers. The back of the vein is shot down and just enough broken material is drawn off to permit access for men to work off the broken ore. Development in Fig. 2 progresses by driving a 3- x 3-m (10- x 10-ft) trackless heading on the footwall side of the vein. The ore block is delineated by raises on 91-m (300-ft) centers. Crosscuts are again driven on 7.6-m (25-ft) centers over to the vein. Approximately four rounds are then taken up to the vein and each round is successively belled out so that all the crosscuts (pockets, in this case) connect. In this development, as opposed to that in Fig. 1 where there were no belled
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