Recycling Lead and Zinc in the United States - Hydrometallurgy and Physical Concentration Become Important Parts of the Secondary Smelter

Queneau, Paul B. ; Hansen, Barry J. ; Spiller, D. Erik
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 22
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
Most lead and zinc secondaries are recycled pyrometallurgically. However, many problems encountered in secondary smelters have been solved by addition of physical concentration and/or hydrometallurgical processing steps, with resulting important environmental benefits. U.S. secondary lead and zinc operations are described, covering conventional smelters, EAF-dust treaters, and zinc sulfate/fertilizer producers, including plant capacities, technologies, and outputs. During the past two decades, remarkable advances have been achieved by recycling spent lead-acid battery components. Interaction between primary and secondary zinc producers, the fertilizer industry, and the zinc chemical industry has substantially decreased waste generation.
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