Appendix A - Definitions

Williams, Roy E. ; Bloomsburg, George L. ; Ralston, Dale R. ; Winter, Gerry V.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 2
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
Aquifer. A formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains sufficient satu rated permeable material to yield significant quan tities of water to wells and springs. Artesian. Synonymous with confined; see ground water, confined. Capillary fringe. The zone immediately above the water table in which all or some of the interstices are filled with water that is under less than atmospheric pressure and that is continuous with the water below the water table. Conceptual model. A conceptualization of a field hydrogeologic framework that facilitates the development of analytical field testing procedures. The results of the test(s) may force changes in the initial conceptual model. Conductivity, hydraulic. Replaces the term "field coefficient of permeability." The volume of water at the existing kinematic viscosity that will move in unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area measured at right angles to the direction of flow, if the porous medium is isotropic and the fluid homogeneous. Confining bed. A body of "impermeable" material stratigraphically adjacent to one or more aquifers; its hydraulic conductivity may range from nearly zero to some value distinctly lower than that of the aquifer. Flow, steady. Any point where the magnitude and direction of the specific discharge are constant in time. Flow, uniform. At every point the specific discharge has the same magnitude and direction. Flow, unsteady. At any point the magnitude or direction of the specific discharge changes with time. Fluid potential. The mechanical energy per unit mass of a fluid at any given point in space and time with respect to an arbitrary state and datum; the fluid potential is proportional to the head. Ground water, confined. Ground water under pressure significantly greater than atmospheric; its upper limit is the bottom of a bed of distinctly lower hydraulic conductivity than that of the material in which the confined water occurs. Ground water, perched. Unconfined ground water separated from an underlying body of ground water by an unsaturated zone. Ground water, unconfined. Water in an aquifer that has a water table. Head, static. Height above a standard datum of the surface of a column of water (or other liquid) that can be supported by the static pressure at a given point. Homogeneity. Hydrogeologic properties are identical everywhere. Hydraulic gradient. Change in static head per unit of distance in a given direction. Hydrostratigraphic unit. A body of material having considerable lateral extent and comprising a geologic framework for a reasonably distinct hydrogeologic system. Isotropy. Condition in which all significant properties are independent of direction. Porosity. Property of containing interstices or voids; may be expressed quantitatively as the ratio of the volume of its interstices to its total volume. Porosity, effective. Interconnected pore space available for fluid transmission; expressed as a percentage of the total volume occupied by the interconnecting interstices. Potentiometric surface. A surface that represents the static head along a particular specified surface or stratum. Specific retention. Ratio of the volume of water that the rock or soil, after being saturated, will retain against the pull of gravity to the volume of the rock or soil. Specific yield. Ratio of the volume of water that the rock or soil, after being saturated, will yield by gravity to the volume of the rock or soil. Storage, specific. The volume of water released from or taken into storage per unit volume of the porous medium per unit change in head.
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