Case Histories of the Application of the STG Integrated Grouting Method

Kipko, Eh. Ya. ; Polozov, Yu. A. ; Lushinkova, O. Yu. ; Lagunov, V. A. ; Svirskiy, Yu. I. ; Williams, Roy A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 26
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
The integrated grouting method, as developed in the USSR, can be applied to multi-purpose operations that in¬clude the construction of shafts, drifts, and tunnels. In the USSR it has been used extensively for primary and final grouting of underground excavations in mining engineering and civil engineering projects. It has been applied in projects where the primary objective was waste contain¬ment. It has also been used to control subsidence beneath buildings located over mined out openings and to eliminate the flow of ground water beneath and around dams. This chapter considers several industrial applications in the form of case histories. The word integrated means that grouting activities were integrated with other activities. 9.1 CASE HISTORIES OF GROUTING FRACTURED ROCK WHEN SINKING VERTICAL SHAFTS The integrated grouting method has been applied most widely in the sinking of vertical shafts in fractured, satu¬rated rock. As explained previously herein, grouting oper¬ations preferably are carried out from the ground surface where they are integrated into the schedule of the setting up of the shaft excavation and construction equipment. Such integration reduces significantly the length of time required for preparation of shaft construction and the time required to sink the shaft. The increased efficiency is achieved by the elimination of cementing operations from the working face upon the penetration of each aquifer. Concomitantly, labor and energy consumption during shaft sinking are minimized because the more complicated and labor-intensive work is carried out at the surface section. Table 9.1 presents the essential parameters for the pri¬mary grouting of saturated fractured rock carried out by the integrated method when sinking vertical shafts. 9.1.1 NAGOL'CHANSK MINE NO. 1-2, VENTILATION SHAFT NO. 1 The integrated method of grouting saturated fractured rock through holes drilled from the surface was employed for the first time during the sinking of vertical shaft No. 1 at the Nagol'chansk mine No. 1-2 in the Don Basin. The shaft had an inside diameter of 6 m. The grouting operations commenced by using cement grout with a density of 1.7 to 1.8 g/cm3. Clay-based grout with cement and other addi¬tives was used only for grouting the aquifers where cement grout proved to be ineffective. By the time of the grouting of ventilation shaft No. 1, hydrodynamic analytical methods were well in hand and a preliminary method for designing isolation curtains had been developed. A method for designing and drilling ori¬ented directional drillholes whose natural curvature re¬flected the characteristics of the fracturing had been devel¬oped. The majority of the necessary equipment had been developed. Clay-based grouts were considered ready for the first industrial application. The hydrogeologic environment at the Nagol'chansk mine No. 1-2 contained many prolific aquifers. According to monitored drillhole data, the total expected inflow into ventilation shaft No. 1 without grouting was 425 m3/hr. This large ground water inflow rate was supported by in¬formation obtained during the sinking of the main shaft and from the auxiliary shaft of the "Nagol'chansk" mine No. 1-2. The construction contractor at the site began sinking ventilation shaft No. 1 to a depth of 217 m by cement grouting from the working face of the shaft. As a result of the cement grouting operations, the inflow of water was reduced from 105.4 to 40 m3/hr over this 217 m interval. However the residual inflow rate caused the shaft to become functional at the depth of 217 m. At this point all grouting operations were transferred to SPETSTAMPONAZHGEOLOGIA (STG) in an effort to improve the operation. In order to carry out preliminary grouting from the sur¬face, seven drillholes were installed and designed for re¬ceiving grout. Drilling was implemented by the ZIF-1200A rig to the design depth of the shaft. The geometry of the principal fracture system that would be encountered by the shaft was estimated while breaking ground using informa¬tion from other shafts. The drillholes were arranged so that they cut through the aquifers uniformly around the shaft. Some preference was given to intercepting the aquifers that were located along the rock dip above the shaft bottom because it was established that the ground water in the aqui¬fers flowed downward along the dip into the cone of de¬pression of the shaft. Investigations in the drillholes using the DAU-3M flowmeter described in Chapter 3 showed that all of the nine aquifers were penetrated by the time a depth of 690 m had been reached. The flowmetric information showed that aquifer numbers [1 and 2], [4, 5, and 6], and [7 and 8] had practically identical hydrogeologic characteristics; so it was decided to connect them into combined stopes and inject the grout using five stopes instead of nine. Table 9.2 shows the results of the grout injection into the aquifers. The volume of grout pumped into the separate intervals through single holes varied from 204 to 15 m3. The trend of grout consumption showed a reduction of grout consump
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