Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

Pages: 3

Publication Date:
Jan 1, 1993

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Abstract

The reliable quality assessment of grouting operations is one of the key issues in establishing impermeable grout curtains around shafts, drifts and tunnels. Reliable opera¬tional information on the decrease in the permeability of rock during the grouting process facilitates the assessment of the effectiveness of the completed curtain and assures production quality. Quality control and assurance also fa¬cilitates the early detection and elimination of possible de¬fects in the grout curtain. Thorough control of the grouting process provides the capability to evaluate decreases in the permeability of water-producing fracture zones prior to the beginning or the continuation of excavation of the shaft, tunnel or drift. In order to achieve this objective, post¬grouting hydrodynamic investigations are conducted prior to the initiation or re-initiation of work on the underground workings to measure the decrease in the permeability coef¬ficient of aquifers during grouting operations. 8.1 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL OF THE ISOLATION OF ROCK BY GROUTING THROUGH HOLES DRILLED FROM THE SURFACE Quality assurance and control are based on measuring the decrease in the permeability coefficient of water-pro¬ducing horizons as a result of injecting grout into the drill¬holes. For this purpose, the value of the acceptable residual permeability coefficient is calculated beforehand based on the acceptable value of ground water inflow into the shaft, drift or tunnel as specified by the "construction norm and integrated practice (SNIP)" (Anon., 1976). Having ob¬tained the values of aquifer thickness, permeability, and head distribution for each aquifer from flowmetric data (dis¬cussed in Chapter 3), the average value of the permeability coefficient of all aquifers intersected by the shaft is calcu¬lated as [ ] where Ki is the permeability coefficient of the "ith" aqui¬fer; Pi is the pressure of the "ith" aquifer; and M; is the thickness of the "ith" aquifer. The total expected inflow of ground water into the shaft is [ ] where RK is the radius of the contour of influence; RCFB is the radius of the shaft; and p is the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of the ground water. The necessary reduction of the coefficient of permeabil¬ity of the aquifer [ ] where Q is the expected inflow of ground water into the shaft from eq. 8.2; Q.-fin is the acceptable inflow of ground water; and a is the safety factor. By knowing the average permeability value of the rock and the permeability reduction coefficient, it is possible to determine the value of the acceptable residual permeability coefficient for all the aquifers [ ] The values of the permeability coefficient, pressure, and thickness for each aquifer are determined from the data gathered during the hydrodynamic investigations conducted in grout holes prior to beginning the grouting operations as discussed in Chapter 3. After injecting the grout into the first of the holes, the injection into each of the following grout holes is preceded by repeated hydrodynamic investi¬gations. Using the data obtained for each water-producing zone, a graph is constructed where the numbers representing the grout holes in their order of grouting are placed on the abscissa, and the values of the aquifer permeability coeffi¬cient are placed on the ordinate (Fig. 103). This curve char¬acterizes the change in permeability of the given hydro¬stratigraphic unit as grouting operations are completed, one hole at a time. The results of grouting operations are considered to be positive when each sequential observation records a steady decrease in the permeability of the aquifer. The permeabil¬ity measured prior to the injection of the grout into the last hole must be lower than or equal to the acceptable perme¬ability as determined by the application of eqs. 8.1 through 8.4. Table 8.1 presents illustrative data on the hydrogeo¬logic properties of aquifers at a mine shaft prior to the initiation of grouting operations. Data also are presented on the reduction in the permeability coefficient during the in¬jection of the grout. The shaft in question intersects eleven aquifers. Based on data concerning aquifer pressure, thick¬ness, permeability, and the expected inflow rate of water for each of the strata, the average permeability coefficient is calculated according to eq. 8.1 as K = 0.2 x 10-12 m2. The |

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