Procedural Aspects of Grouting Shafts, Tunnels and Drifts

Kipko, Eh. Ya. ; Polozov, Yu. A. ; Lushinkova, O. Yu. ; Lagunov, V. A. ; Svirskiy, Yu. I. ; Williams, Roy A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 16
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
The STG integrated method of grouting can be divided into the several phases as outlined in preceding chapters. For convenience in describing technical procedures, they can be grouped as: 1. Investigations in non-geotechnical, exploration bore¬holes. 2. Drilling the holes necessary for geotechnical investiga¬tions and for grouting. 3. Conducting appropriate hydrogeologic tests in those holes and consequent calculations. 4. The preparation of a clay mortar. 5. The preparation of a clay-cement grout with additives. 6. The injection of the grout. 7. Checking the quality of the grout curtain. Items 2, 4, 5 and 6 are discussed below. These activities contain the procedural aspects of grouting. 7.1 DRILLING GROUT HOLES Grout holes belong to a very select class of drillholes. The necessary drilling equipment must enable the operator to drill the holes in inclined, twisting directions. In addi¬tion, the equipment must permit drilling under structurally and hydrogeologically complex conditions. The equipment must permit the operator to conduct specific testing activi¬ties in the drillholes. These activities include hydrodynamic analyses, flowmetric analysis, and the installation and re¬moval of deflectors, packers, grouting plugs, casings, lin¬ers, pumping facilities and other work. As explained in Chapters 5 and 6, the grouting of sat¬urated rock is conducted both through holes drilled from the surface and through holes drilled from the face of a shaft, drift, or tunnel. The drilling of grout holes from the surface can be carried out by an aggregate of equipment that can be the same equipment used for drilling exploration boreholes. Depending on the projected depth of the holes, the STG ZIF- 1200MR and ZIF-650 drilling rigs (or modifications of them) are used. The SKB-4, SKB-5 and SKB-7 high-output drilling rigs (workover rigs) have been used in recent years. The STG BMP-24 drilling rigs are used for carrying out the descent-lifting operations for drilling holes from the sur¬face. In a number of cases, the UKB-500C, URB-3AM and URB-2A power-fed drilling equipment is used for drilling holes from the surface. It should be noted that the drilling of grout holes usually requires an electric drive assembly. Drilling with diesel drive assemblies would be used only to preclude the possi¬bility of losing electric power during drilling operations. Turbine drilling would be used only for appropriate techni¬cal-economic reasons. The selection of the grout hole design is determined by the hydrogeological and structural geological conditions at the site as interpreted in Chapters 2 and 3. The design of grout holes must be as simple as possible in order to min¬imize costs. Hole design guidelines can be adopted as a basis for this purpose, unless site-specific conditions require otherwise. The mouth of the drillhole must be outfitted with a guide-pipe having a length of at least 2 m and an outside diameter from 219 to 234 mm. The upper part of the hole must be attached by a jig consisting of borehole casing that has a diameter ranging from 108 to 146 mm. The length of the jig h is determined by the equation [ ] where k = 1.1 to 1.2 is the load factor; P,, is the injection pressure of the grout into the mouth of the drillhole; D is the external diameter of the jig pipe; m = 0.6 to 0.7 is the work condition factor; T[ ].1 MPa is the bonding value of the rock cemented to the jig. The grout hole is drilled from the jig shoe to the de¬signed depth using a rock-crushing bit with a diameter of 93 mm or more. However in complex hydrogeological condi¬tions when the shaft intersects unstable rock, other hole designs can be used. The diameter of grout holes must permit an aggregate of investigations to be conducted in them using down-hole borehole geophysical and flowmetric logging instruments. It is necessary to cement the casing strings reliably in the grout holes, thereby permitting the injection of the grout under high pressure through the pres¬sure tight mouth of the borehole. Technological details for drilling grout holes such as the rotational rate of the drill bit, the axial load on the rock¬crushing bit, and the drilling fluid flow rate are optimized for the specific rock-hydrogeological conditions largely by experience. The hole diameter and type of rock crushing bit are important variables in these details of drilling. It is advisable to drill holes using water as the drilling fluid. However in those cases where the hole walls are unstable or under very high ground water pressure, the use of a well¬ engineered drilling mud should not be precluded. Unfortu¬nately, drilling mud can influence test results. When steeply dipping fractures with inclination angles of more than 60 to 70° are encountered, it is necessary to drill guided, inclined grout holes. This procedure permits the maximum number of fractures in each hole to be stu-
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