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|6.1 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING GROUTING OPERATIONS FOR SHAFTS, DRIFTS AND TUNNELS The planning of integrated grouting of vertical, inclined or horizontal underground workings in saturated, fractured rock includes the following phases: 1. Planning for the collection and analysis of geological information concerning the characteristics of the struc¬tural deformation(s) that produced the details of the frac¬ture system being studied. 2. Planning for the acquisition of initial hydrogeological information produced by the flowmetric and hydrody¬namic investigations (described in Chapters 2 and 3). 3. Computing the initial engineering calculations of the ex¬pected or planned dimensions of the isolation curtains for each water-producing stratum (fracture zone) and the expected areal spreading pattern of the grout in each of these water-producing horizons. The selection of the lo¬cations, the initial optimal number of holes and the vol¬ume of grout needed to create each isolation curtain also are included in this phase. 4. The selection or development of a grout formula for the specific hydrogeological conditions that exist at the site. 5. Identification of a resource (deposit) required to produce the grouting clay. The planning of grouting operations must be supported by the acquisition of all necessary initial data, which in¬cludes: 1. The geographic location and administrative responsibil¬ity (ownership and regulatory constraints) of the mineral deposit and any peculiar features of the area where ex¬cavation of the underground workings is planned. The surface relief, the hydrographic network of the region, and the local climatic conditions must be evaluated prior to planning for buildings and waste discharges if any. 2. The economic status of the region, the available trans¬portation, the nature of the energy base, the water and heat supply sources, the location of construction mate¬rials suitable for making the grout all must be deter¬mined. 3. The geological and hydrogeological characterization of the work site must be accomplished. 4. The technical features of the shaft(s) and underground works must be characterized. 5. The organization's principal initial design plan features and the construction sequence of all buildings and struc¬tures must be developed. These must be correlated with the organization and schedule for excavating the under¬ground works. The technical characterization of a shaft or of other un¬derground workings must contain information about the purpose of the workings, the design depth, the planned excavation procedures along with cross-sections, and the parameters of the lining, if a lining is required. The geology of the section to be penetrated must include geological data obtained from existing exploration activities at the mineral deposit and conclusions about the shaft ex¬cavation conditions obtained from drilling technical moni¬toring holes and exploration drillholes. The interpreted stratigraphic regime, including the thickness, strike and dip of each stratum, must be shown in cross-section. The tec¬tonics, including all geologic structures, must be presented by cross-sections. The bedding orientations must be used to identify anticlines, synclines, monoclines and faults. The lithologic composition and the drillability of the rock com¬prising the section must be examined. The character of the rock's fracture pattern must be presented. Finally the per¬meability, porosity and storage characteristics of each aqui¬fer must be determined by in situ hydraulic property testing (injection tests or pumping tests, as described in Chapter 3). The fracture pattern of the indurated rock is presented in reports derived from geo-exploration borehole studies and from studies of outcrops on the surface and in all nearby underground workings. The extent of each fracture zone is mapped in three dimensions. The distribution of fracture apertures, the nature of the fractures according to each litho¬logic stratum, and the relationship of bedding planes to each fracture system are all determined. Acoustic logs, downhole cameras, caliper logs, oriented core, and any other appro¬priate geophysical tools available are used to construct the data base for this purpose. The hydrogeological characterization of the geologic section to be penetrated by the workings is based on the analysis of hydrogeological data collected during the drill¬ing and testing of technical monitoring holes and from in¬formation on ground water inflow collected during the ex¬cavation of nearby underground workings, if such workings exist. The hydrogeologic characterization must contain the following information: 1. The identification of all aquifers, their thicknesses and their locations in the section, 2. The distribution of hydrostatic head in the ground water in three dimensions, 3. The coefficient of saturated hydraulic conductivity (per¬ meability) of each aquifer, 4. The porosity and storativity of each aquifer, and 5. The projected rate of water inflow into the shaft, drift or tunnel for each aquifer prior to grouting. This step is used to identify the zones to be grouted.|