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|5.1 TECHNOLOGY FOR INJECTING GROUT INTO BOREHOLES The grouting of fractured rock aquifers is carried out in separate stopes' whose size is determined by the hydro¬stratigraphy and the hydrogeologic properties of the rocks. The number of grouting stopes required depends on the number of intervals in the hydrogeological section. Each grouting stope can include one or several aquifers. Com¬bining several water-producing strata into one stope is pos¬sible only when the values of their permeability coefficients are very similar. In order to achieve efficiency, as many aquifers as possible are included in each stope. In practice, the length of a grouting stope in a borehole usually ranges within 10 to 40 m, but occasionally up to 100 m or more. When conducting grouting operations through boreholes drilled from the face of underground workings, the stope's size can be determined by the thick¬ness of each fractured zone (fault) or by the length of the hole if the entire rock is fractured. Injecting grout into separate intervals of fractured rock can be done from the bottom to the top with ascending stopes or from the top to the bottom with descending stopes. Injection from bottom to top is always preferred. Injection also can be accomplished in separate fractured permeable horizons in the section. The STG integrated grouting method is based on the use of packer and injection equipment and technological schemes that facilitate injection in highly isolated fractured aquifers. For this purpose STG has developed a standard series of packers. 5.1.1 INJECTING GROUT THROUGH BOREHOLES DRILLED FROM THE SURFACE Grout can be injected according to one of four techno¬logical schemes depending on the depth of the fractured aquifers, their hydrogeologic properties and the availability of grout injection equipment if the area is remote (Fig. 43). In the first and most preferred technological scheme (1), the grout is injected from the bottom up with ascending stopes. When this scheme is employed, grouting holes are drilled to the entire projected depth based on the field investigations injection tubes is installed above the top of the first hydrostratigraphic unit to be grouted. This scheme al¬lows the grout to be injected only into the permeable stra¬tum or strata isolated by the packer near the bottom of the hole; it precludes the need to clean or redrill the hole before injecting grout into the next overlying stope. This ascending stope scheme is preferred because of its simplicity and ef¬ficiency. It is used in most of the grouting of saturated fractured rock for the purpose of isolating aquifers while excavating deep mine shafts in the USSR. The second technological scheme (II in Fig. 43) injects the grout in sequence from top to bottom with descending stopes. Injection under this scheme is accomplished through the hermetically-sealed mouth of the hole. It is most advis¬able to grout with descending stopes in saturated fractured rock wherein the aquifers constitute thick networks of frac¬tures. Under these conditions it is practically impossible to drill a grout hole to the entire depth of the underground workings due to the large production rate of ground water. In conducting isolation operations with descending stopes, additional work (relative to ascending stopes) is necessary to drill out the grout in order to create and inject the next stope. As a result, the total amount of drilling required to drill out grout can even exceed the volume of drilling of original rock. Consequently it is advisable to use this inefficient scheme only for injecting grout into holes that contain prolific frac¬tured aquifers at depths less than 150 to 200 m. The third and fourth technological schemes (III and IV in Fig. 43) are used in the selective grouting of separate aquifers. For example, these methods would be applied when a grout hole is drilled to its entire depth, wherein grouting of the upper aquifers must be done first so that the sinking of the first shaft can begin prior to deeper grouting. The third technological scheme is used for the selective injection of grout into an aquifer with a thickness of up to 5 m. For this work the DAU-1-2 removable dual packer is installed. It is lowered into the borehole on an injection pipeline. For aquifers with thicknesses of more then 5 m, the selective injection of the grout is carried out according to the fourth technological scheme; a combination of the DAU-2 hydrodynamic plug and the DAU-1 packing device is used. In order to implement this injection scheme, the DAU-2 hydro-dynamic plug is installed at the bottom of the fractured aquifer and the DAU-1 packer is installed at the top of the aquifer.|