Characteristics of the Clay-based Grouts

Kipko, Eh. Ya. ; Lagunov, V. A. ; Lushinkova, O. Yu. ; Polozov, Yu. A. ; Svirskiy, Yu. I. ; Williams, Roy A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 19
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
4.1 THE GENERAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY-BASED GROUTS Clay-based grouts are visco-plastic systems; they are made by adding structure-forming reagents to a clay mineral mortar. Small amounts of cement and various chemical ad¬ditives constitute the reagents. If necessary, fillers also are added. The distinguishing feature of clay-based grouts is that throughout their entire stabilization period they do not form a crystallized structure as does cement grout. The structure of stabilized clay-based grouts does not deteriorate during minor rock movement or upon the initiation of blast¬ing during the construction of a shaft or a drift. Because they can possess good rheological properties during the ini¬tial structure-forming period relative to cement grouts, clay¬based grouts are not easily eroded from large fractures and karstic cavities by flowing ground water. In addition, their finely dispersed clay particles facilitate a greater fracture penetration capacity, especially in dual porosity rocks. Numerous investigations of the structural-mechanical and rheological properties of clay-based grouts by STG have demonstrated that the most effective grouts for pre¬venting the inflow of ground water into underground work¬ings are grouts that have a cement content of 8 to 10% (90 to 120 kg/m3) of the clay grout by mass. The grout should have a density of 1.18 to 1.30 T/m3. Various additional substances and chemicals can be added as additional fillers and structure-forming reagents. In pure ground water at temperatures above freezing, sodium silicate in the amount of 0.8 to 1 % by mass normally is the only structure-forming reagent that is necessary if the proper clay is selected and if it is available. The production process for making clay-based grout is divided into two stages: 1) the production of an initial clay mortar with specified properties and 2) the production of a clay-cement additive grout mixture using the initial grout along with the structure-forming reagents, including the ce¬ment. The properties of clay-based grouts depend on the phys¬ical-mechanical properties of the initial clay mineral, the properties of the cement and the properties of the chemical reagents that are added. 4.1.1 TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY-BASED GROUTS The dynamic shear stress' To, the viscosity 11, the static shear stress2 0, the maximum shear stress of the structured that the rheological and structural-mechanical prop¬erties of clay-based grouts must fall within the following limits: the dynamic shear stress To = 50 to 200 Pa; the viscosity -9 = 0.02 to 0.07 Pa sec; the static shear stress 0 = 150 to 600 Pa; the plasticity strength Pm of the structure one minute after preparation (according to P.A. Rebinder's method) equals 150 to 500 Pa. The plasticity strength 10 days after preparation is ? 0.15 MPa. The general relationship of the change in the structural strength of clay-based grouts relative to stabilization time is shown in Fig. 32. The figure shows that the structure-form¬ing process for clay-based grouts is characterized by three stages. These stages correspond to the time periods required for conducting the principal operations during the injection of the grout into a fractured aquifer as described below. Stage I, corresponding to the time period T1, reflects the small development of structural strength during early stabi¬lization. During this time, the structural strength must not preclude the capability to pump the grout. The time Tl must correspond to the length of pumping time from the moment water is shut off and mixing occurs until the pump stops forcing the grout through the manifold block and pipeline into the fractured rock as described subsequently herein. Stage II, corresponding to the time interval T2, reflects a sharp but controllable increase in the structural strength of the grout. The length of time period T2 is controlled by the addition of appropriate reagents. Stage III produces the final value of the structural strength. This final strength is used to design the dimensions of the isolation curtain. Consequently, the development of grouts is guided by two principal criteria: 1) the grout must develop the highest possible structural-mechanical properties and 2) it must be able to be pumped by a piston pump prior to final stabili¬zation. Successful grouting depends to a large extent on the correct design of a grout for each specific case. It is impor-
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