Hydrodynamic Investigations for Characterizing Hydrogeological Environments Prior to Grouting

Kipko, Eh. Ya. ; Lagunov, V. A. ; Lushinkova, O. Yu. ; Polozov, Yu. A. ; Svirskiy, Yu. I. ; Williams, Roy A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 28
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
Hydrodynamic investigations in exploratory boreholes and grouting holes are conducted for the purpose of obtain¬ing information about the hydraulic properties of the hydrostratigraphic section to be intersected by the proposed underground workings. The information obtained from the investigations provides the basis for calculating the hydrau¬lic coefficients of fractured permeable rock, the dimensions of the anticipated grout isolation curtain(s) around the un¬derground workings, the number and location of grouting holes, the injection pressure modes, and also the volume(s) of grout that will be required (Anon., 1976, 1978). The following data on each aquifer are obtained from the investigations conducted in monitoring and grouting bore¬holes and the analysis of the results: 1) the top of each hydrostratigraphic unit, 2) the thickness of each unit, 3) the ground water fluid potential distribution in each unit, 4) the coefficient of permeability, 5) the piezoconductivity, 6) the fracture porosity, 7) the geometry of the fractures in the rock, 8) the elasticity-compressibility coefficient of the fractured rock, 9) the chemical composition of the ground water, 10) the direction of flow of the ground water, and 11) the expected inflow rate of water into the shaft, drift or tunnel. STG uses its DAU-3M type flowmeter to conduct in¬vestigations of directions of flow in vertical, inclined and horizontal drillholes. The DAU-6 instrument is used to de¬termine the direction of flow of ground water in each frac¬ture or fractured aquifer. Various singular and double DAU type packers are used for pumping and for injection studies (tests) and for flowmeter investigations. Normally the instruments enumerated above permit in¬vestigations to be conducted in each separate aquifer with¬out reinforcing the holes with casings. On the basis of these investigative data, both the hydraulic properties of unfractured rock and the hydraulic properties of the fractured rock are estimated. Dual porosity rocks require special attention because they tend to segregate the grout. 3.1 FLOWMETER INVESTIGATIONS IN BOREHOLES The STG flowmetric methodology is based on the mea¬surement of the ground water flow rate through the borehole by hydrostratigraphic interval after the disturbance of the hydrostatic equilibrium in the "hole-aquifer system" (after pumping or injecting). The relationship of the head changes to the discharge into or from a particular hydrostratigraphic unit obtained during the tests serve as the basis for calcu¬lating the hydraulic properties. Flowmetric investigations facilitate the determination of the number of aquifers, their depths, their thickness, the hydraulic properties of the fractured rock and the magnitude and direction of the flow of ground water. 3.1.1 FLOWMETER HARDWARE STG conducts flowmetric investigations in boreholes using its DAU-3M-108, DAU-3M-73, DAU-3M-57 and DAU-3M-44 instruments.' They have respective external diameters of 108, 73, 57 and 44 mm. The type of flowmeter selected for use depends on the borehole geometry and the technological scheme for carrying out the investigations. Boreholes with a drilling diameter of 76-93 mm are inves¬tigated with the DAU-3M-73 flowmeter; boreholes drilled by bits with a diameter of 112 mm and more are investi¬gated using the DAU-3M-108 flowmeter. The DAU-3M¬108 and DAU-3M-57 instruments are used for flowmetric investigations with a packer. The Downhole Sensor The sensor design of the DAU-3M-73 hole flowmeter is shown in Fig. 2. The design of the DAU-3M-108 instru¬ment is similar to the design of the DAU-3M-73 instrument. The frame of the flowmeter sensor shown in Fig. 2 consists of a casing, an upper and lower centering mount and two rings to which the guiding rods are attached. The upper rods are built into the connector bushing; the lower rods are built into the coupling sleeve. The borehole cable is attached using a half-coupling, a packing ring and a constriction nut. Thus, the frame of the flowmeter sensor is made so that the free passage of water to the impeller is facilitated along with the necessary rigidity. The primary moving component of the flowmeter is the double-bladed impeller, which rotates on cobalt-tungsten pivots and agate thrust bearings. Special extended air cham¬bers protect the supports of the impeller from the action of the borehole fluid which may contain fibrous and abrasive particles. The air located in the chambers shields the sup¬ports from direct contact with the borehole fluid when the sensor operates in a borehole. The hollow casing of the impeller serves the function of a lower cap. The upper cap is attached to the casing using a threaded connector; it is affixed also with a lock-nut. An adjusting screw with a
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