Collection and Classification of Hydrogeological Data for Planning and Conducting Grouting Operations

Kipko, Eh. Ya. ; Lagunov, V. A. ; Lushinkova, O. Yu. ; Polozov, Yu. A. ; Svirskiy, Yu. I. ; Williams, Roy A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 5
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1993
The effectiveness of the grouting of saturated, fractured rock in the vicinity of underground workings depends to a great extent on the correct interpretation of the specific hydrogeological conditions at the site. During the planning of grouting operations, calculations of the hydrogeologic co-efficients and of the parameters of the isolating grout curtain(s) and the procedures for forming the curtain(s) must be based on valid hydrogeologic characteristics of the fracture system of the rock within each hydrostratigraphic unit (Anon., 1976). This chapter presents a discussion of the background information that must be collected for these purposes. Details of testing are presented in Chapter 3. The general design of new or the reconstruction of existing underground workings requires a broadly based organization having the expertise to develop a grouting operations plan once it acquires the necessary information. The needed information includes: 1) general information about the hydrogeologic section, 2) the engineering design of the underground workings, 3) the geology of the region, 4) the hydrochemistry of the ground water, 5) the hydraulic properties of the rock, 6) the characterization of all gases present, and 7) characterization of the rock's physical-mechanical properties which is necessary to avoid or control hydrofracturing . The geological documentation portion of the hydrogeological investigation is prepared based on the results of geologic mapping, geophysical surveys and on geo-exploratory operations at a regional and local scale. Geological data from the excavation of other underground workings in adjacent areas of the region is also included. Finally the results of site specific investigations in boreholes constructed at the site of the proposed underground activity are incorporated. A section of the preliminary report entitled "General Information about the Project Site" patterned after the parent STG guidance document on this subject must be com- piled based on the contents of geological reports and on the general construction plan for a new project or the plan for reconstruction of an existing operation. This section of the preliminary report must contain concise information about the conditions under which the planned grouting operations are to be conducted. The information must cover the geo- graphic, administrative, and economic subject areas also. Information about sources of electrical power, heat and water supplies, the presence and characteristics of local construction materials suitable for making grout (particularly clay and cement for the clay-based grout), transportation, and the status of communication lines and other services must be included in this section. Map scales for this section should be on the order of 1:25,000. The technical characterization of planned underground workings is presented in a project report chapter called "General Construction Plan for a New or the Restoration of an Old Operation. " The characterization comprises concise information about the purpose of the workings, the planned depths (for shafts) and the length (for horizontal and inclined workings), the inside and excavated diameters (for shafts), the cross-sectional area (for inclined and horizontal workings), and the face and mouth markers. If excavated underground workings exist in the region, then a concise description of them must be provided. The characterization of all excavations and all operational conditions must be specified. The location within the general structure of the proposed operation is specified. Flow charts must be included in this section that show: 1) the plan for opening the deposit, 2) the plans of the mining operations, and 3) the planned geological sections as they relate to the main workings. These graphical flow charts and appendices are drawn in scales of 1:2000 or 1:5000. 2.1 GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION The geological characterization of a site of proposed underground workings includes the following principal subject areas: stratigraphy, lithology, structural geology and a characterization of the status of fracturing. 2.1.1 STRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOLOGY A description of the geological section of the rocks to be intersected by the planned underground workings is complied on the basis of: 1) research data derived from core extracted from exploratory boreholes and monitoring boreholes, 2) the documentation and mapping of all natural out- crops in the region, 3) the data from all existing under-ground workings in the regions where operations are being canied out already, along with data from adjacent regions, 4) the data from surface and borehole geophysical investigations (standard and specially developed logging methods, and 5) regional stratigraphy. The geological description of the rock must express the maximum detail possible. The description provides the name of the rock, the granulometric composition (for fragmented rock), the composition and type of stratification, the drilling characteristics of the rock, a visual estimate of porosity and density for each stratum identified, the karstic
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