Subsidence Measurement Techniques

Peng, Syd S. ; Centofanti, K. ; Luo, Yi ; Ma, W. M. ; Su, Daniel W. H. ; Zhong, W. L.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 21
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1992
7.1 INTRODUCTION Subsidence measurements include surveys of surface and sub- surface movements and measurements and monitoring of surface structural damages. In this chapter the most commonly employed methods are discussed. 7.2 MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE MOVEMENT Surface movements involve two basic components, subsidence and displacement. The other five components (i.e., slope, curvature, strain, twisting, and shearing) are derived from the two basic components. Since all measurements are geometrical, they can be measured by common surveying techniques. 7.2.1 MONUMENTS The first step is to select the types of monuments or surveying stations. Various types of monuments have been employed. The simplest one is a paint mark on the pavement or concrete slab, although this should be discouraged because it is easily affected by artificial or environmental factors. Others use steel or wooden rods, 2 to 3 in. in diameter or square by 2 to 5 ft long, driven all the way down, flush with the ground. Both types of-monuments have no provision for frozen ground heave and both are tampered with easily. A more elaborate type is shown in Fig. 7.1 (O'Rourke et al., 1982). A rebar or iron pipe, 2 in. in diameter by 6 ft long is driven down to nearly flush with ground surface. The top 4-ft section of the hole around the pipe is enlarged to 1 ft in diameter and grouted with concrete. The most sophisticated type of monument is shown in Fig. 7.2 (Conroy and Gyannaty, 1983a). It consists of two hollow steel pipes. The inner I-in. pipe, 10 ft. long is enclosed by a 2-in. pipe at the upper 5-ft. interval. The gap between pipes is filled with foam to isolate the inner pipe from external environmental effects. The bottom of the inner pipe can either remain open or be sealed with a cap, depending on whether the ground is dry or wet. 7.2.2 MONUMENT ARRANGEMENT AND SURVEY LINES The monuments are installed strategically to form survey lines. Three basic types of monument arrangements are shown in Fig. 7.3. Figs. 7.3a and 7.3b are for single and multiple panels respectively; Fig. 7.3~ is mainly for research purposes with multiple survey lines both in longitudinal and transverse directions. This is extremely useful for defining the distributions of ground deformation, as shown in Figs. 2.10 and 2.11. Basically there are two types of survey lines: the whole basin survey line which extends across the panel width or length (e.g., lines R, R, in Fig. 7.3 a&b), and the half basin survey line which covers approximately half of the panel width or length (e.g., lines R, F in Fig. 7.3 &b). Survey lines are generally straight and linear. They should be located on the major crosssections of the subsidence basin. Survey lines must extend beyond the edge of the opening for a sufficient distance so that the edges of the subsidence basin can be determined accurately. The minimum distance from the edge of the opening must be [ ] where h = mining depth, [ ] = angle of draw, and [ ] = 5 to 7 times monument spacing for whole basin surveys, or 8 to 10 times the monument spacing for half basin surveys. There must be at least two controlling monuments at each end of each survey line. Controlling monuments must be located beyond the influence of underground mining. The spacing of the monuments ranges from 15 to 200 ft. The UK National Coal Board (NCB, 1975) recommended a spacing equivalent to 0.20 of the mining depth. Peng and Geng (1982) recommended that the maximum monument spacing be dependent on mining depths as follows:
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