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|3.1 INTRODUCTION The final subsidence basin discussed so far is that developed long after mining has stopped. In a supercritical final subsidence basin, the central portion subsides uniformly. Thus any structures located there are not subjected to any final permanent surface deformation. But this statement is only true for the final subsidence basin. When the face is moving, the structures are subjected to dynamic deformations associated with the dynamic subsidence basin. For instance the house in front of a moving face (location 1 in Fig. 3.1) is subjected to the maximum tensile strain and the maximum positive curvahue. When it falls behind the face in location 2, it is subjected to the maximum compressive strain and the maximum negative curvature. When the house is far behind the face in location 3, it returns to its original condition with only uniform subsidence. However, the magnitude of the dynamic deformations may be sufficiently large to damage a structure in locations 1 and 2 before it reaches location 3. Therefore it is very important to study the characteristics of the dynamic subsidence basin. Under normal conditions, when the face has advanced for a distance approximately one-sixth to one-third of the seam depth from the setup entry, depending on the seam depth and the physical properties of the overburden strata, the movement of the over- burden strata reaches the surface, whereupon the surface also be- gins to deform. Thereafter, the surface point where the movement initiates is always located at a fixed distance ahead of the face. The angle between the vertical line at the faceline and the line connecting the movement initiation point on the surface and the face- line is the angle of advance influence, w. The angle of advance influence can be used to determine the distance, [ 1], which is the influence zone ahead of the face. w is approximately 20O to 35 O for the northern Appalachian coalfield (Peng and Geng, 1984). The movement of each surface point is a relatively complicated process both in time and in space, because the relative position between the faceline and each surface point varies continuously, so that the direction and rate of movement for each surface point differ. In the following sections, the movements of each surface point on the major cross section are illustrated. 3.2 DYNAMIC SURFACE MOVEMENTS Dynamic surface movements include dynamic subsidence and displacement. The movement of each point on the subsidence basin is different as the face advances from 1 to 6 (Fig. 3.2). Surface points A and B, being far in front of the moving face, subside and displace toward the face (i.e., from A to A' and from B to B'). Point C, which is quite near but in front of the moving face, subsides continuously but displaces initially toward the face and then turns to pure subsidence ending up at C'. Point D, which is behind the face above the gob, subsides continuously, but displaces initially toward the face when it is in front of the face and reverses to follow the moving face when it is behind the face, with the amount of displacement toward the face being larger than that following the face. As a result the net displacement is toward the center of the gob (i.e., from point D to D'). The same statement is true for point E. For point F, the net displacement is zero, i.e it appears to have dropped down vertically to F'. For points G to I, the net displacements are in the direction of face advance except the magnitudes are increasing in sequential order. Point 1, has reached the final dynamic position of 1'. In other words, the face has passed sufficiently away such that it does not affect the movement at point I. All other points (A to H) are still within the face influenced area. 3.3 DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC SUBSIDENCE PROFILES When the face has moved for a distance of h/6-h/3 from the setup entry, surface subsidence reaches the surface. At this time the surface subsidence basin is very mild (S, in Fig. 3.3), and it is symmetrical about the center. As the face continues to advance, the maximum subsidence continues to increase, and its location moves with, but falls farther behind the face. When the face has advanced a sufficient distance, e.g., (0.9-2.2)h, away from the setup entry, the maximum subsidence reaches the maximum possible value (curve S,). At this time, the dynamic subsidence profile is fully developed. Thereafter both sides of the dynamic subsidence profile become stabilized. The subsidence profile on the face side moves with the advancing face in an orderly manner (curves S, and S,). When the face stops, the face side of the profile continues to subside and becomes stabilized (curves;) sometime after. Curve S; is the final subsidence profile (see Fig. 2.22). 3.4 DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC DISPLACEMENT AND SLOPE PROFILES The dynamic displacement profile moves with the advancing face (Fig. 3.4), but changes according to some specific rules. When the face has advanced to A, the surface begins to move and its dynamic displacement profile has two maximum values (curve Ua): one positive near the setup entry moving toward the face advancing direction and the other negative on the face side also moving toward the face advancing direction. As the face continues to advance, the positive maximum displacement on the setup entry side increases and moves toward the face continuously. The same statement is true for the negative maximum displacement on the face side. When the opening increases to the critical size, both the maximum positive and negative displacements reach the peak values and remain constant thereafter. Notice that when the opening becomes critical in size, the point of zero displacement no longer moves with the advancing face. Rather it spreads into an area of zero displacement (curve Ue) and expands as the face advances. When the face stops, the displacement on the face side continues until it becomes stabilized (curve Úe). Curve Úe is the final displacement profile. The ratio of maximum dynamic to final displacement ranges from 60 to 75%. The dynamic slope profile follows the same patterns of change. The ratio of maximum dynamic to maximum final slope ranges from 50 to 80%. The maximum slope decreases with in- creasing rate of face advance (Peng and Geng, 1984). It must be pointed out that except for those near both sides of the profiles, each point on the displacement and slope profiles is subjected to a cycle of positive and negative displacements and slopes depending on its relative position with respect to the face.|