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|INTRODUCTION A physical separation partitions a stream of particles into two streams - one containing a concentration of a desirable constituent; the other containing a defficiency - on the basis of a difference in physical properties. Separating ores into concentrates of increased grade and gangue minerals has been practiced for thousands of years. Physical properties of materials which have been used to achieve separations include size, relative density, shape, magnetism, surface charge, color, characteristic emission, resilience and strength. The study of physical separations has also been termed attribute tracking. The term attribute is used to describe the content of the material of interest, or, sometimes, properties not used as a basis of the separation. The content is usually given by its assay; e.g., %Cu, %Fe, etc. Attribute tracking involves material balancing. For a separation using two physical properties, say x and y, the balance is|