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|The control of high temperature processes requires the ability to measure significant variables during operations. With increasing automatic computerized control there is need for sensors which can provide on-line chemical analyses of all phases present in a reactor without the necessity to withdraw samples from the high temperature reaction zone. Probes using electrochemical cells and conductivity measuring devices have provided the answers to some of these problems, notably the measurement of oxygen in liquid metals, and similar potential systems based on the same fundamental principles for the analysis of non-metallic and metallic elements appear feasible. In this discussion, the state-of-the-art in chemical sensors will be discussed in terms of the potential materials of construction, and, in some cases, the limitations of upper temperature at which some promising systems can, at present, be applied. It is concluded that a new phase of basic research could improve the outlook substantially by providing solutions for some problems in chemical sensors which are now well-defined.|