The Relationship between Ultrasonic Velocities and Mechanical Damage in Sandstone under Cyclic Loading

Yang, Sen ; Liu, Shimin ; Zhang, Hongwei
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2017
"This laboratory study investigates the damage evolution of sandstone specimens under two types of cyclic loading conditions through monitoring and analyzing the variations of elastic moduli and ultrasonic velocities. We adopted the rigidity degradation method for evaluating the damage accumulation through the rock dynamic ultrasonic velocity measurements. Compared to the ultrasonic test, the method of rigidity degradation shows deficiencies in the detection of damage development. The cyclic loading within the elastic limit led to a stiffening trend for the loading process but a softening trend for unloading process. The method of rigidity degradation was unable to describe the damage accumulation in this situation, while P-wave velocity clearly reflected the damage development. Moreover, a simplified model is established for interpreting the behaviors of the modulus variations and ultrasonic velocity. The cyclic loading within elastic limit enhances the anisotropy of rock, which causes a denser packing pattern in the direction of axial stress. The persistent damage accumulation under the cycling with an increasing upper limit is the consequence of the tensile failure in the microstructure of sandstone. INTRODUCTION The damage accumulation due to dynamic (cyclic) loading is highly detrimental in many engineering structures, such as mine openings, petroleum and natural gas boreholes, tunnels, rock foundations, and underground chambers. The sources of cyclic or repetitive loadings can be roughly divided into two types: (1) periodic operation, including drilling, blasting, and mining; (2) random vibration, including earthquakes and traffic loads. The repetitive loading-unloading process opens and closes the micro-pores and micro-cracks within the rock, further inducing the growth of cracks. As expected, the accumulating damage becomes a potential factor to trigger the rapid and violent failures of large-scale engineering rock structure."
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