If you have access to OneMine as part of a member benefit, log in through your member association website for a seamless user experience.
|Most pyrometallurgical processes take place at high temperature with rapid chemical reactions when the elements and compounds are usually liquid or gaseous. Smelting. The classical method of obtaining a metal from its ore or concentrate is to smelt it in a furnace. The initial letter "s" of this word implies that, in addition to the physical process of melting, a chemical change also occurs. This is usually the reduction of metal oxide to metal by carbon or through a series of processes involving oxidation and reduction. Since solid-solid contact would not be sufficient to give a high rate of reaction, most smelting reactions occur by medium of two reactions involving solid-gaseous contact: where M represents a metal. The commonly preferred unit for carrying out these reactions is the blast furnace,1 which is a vertical shaft of refractory brick or water-cooled steel in which lumps of metal oxide and coke are fed at the top, and an air-blast is injected through tuyeres (water-cooled pipes) in the bottom. Molten metal is withdrawn from a pool at the bottom of the furnace, while N2, CO, and CO2 gases leave the top of the furnace, carrying some fine dust or fume with them, which|