Davey, T. R. A. ; Woods, S. E. ; Bird, R. L. ; Blair, J. C. ; Stacey, G. S. ; Sherman, J. W. ; DiSanto, B. J. ; Cullom, J. T. ; Bjorling, G. ; Honkasalo, Jorma
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 59
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1985
Most pyrometallurgical processes take place at high temperature with rapid chemical reactions when the elements and compounds are usually liquid or gaseous. Smelting. The classical method of obtaining a metal from its ore or concentrate is to smelt it in a furnace. The initial letter "s" of this word implies that, in addition to the physical process of melting, a chemical change also occurs. This is usually the reduction of metal oxide to metal by carbon or through a series of processes involving oxidation and reduction. Since solid-solid contact would not be sufficient to give a high rate of reaction, most smelting reactions occur by medium of two reactions involving solid-gaseous contact: where M represents a metal. The commonly preferred unit for carrying out these reactions is the blast furnace,1 which is a vertical shaft of refractory brick or water-cooled steel in which lumps of metal oxide and coke are fed at the top, and an air-blast is injected through tuyeres (water-cooled pipes) in the bottom. Molten metal is withdrawn from a pool at the bottom of the furnace, while N2, CO, and CO2 gases leave the top of the furnace, carrying some fine dust or fume with them, which
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