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|History of Development The hydrocyclone, probably because of its basic simplicity, has been used for various classification applications since before 1890. A patent was granted in the United States in 1891 to Bretney on a device for separating sand from water, collecting the sand in a closed chamber for intermittent discharge, practically identical to some present-day water desanding cyclones. Between 1900 and 1937 there were 30 or more additional patents issued on liquid cyclone configurations or their use. About 1937 liquid cyclones began to be used commercially in the treatment of cellulose fiber in the pulp and paper industry separating contaminating particles from the fiber in water suspension used for making high grade paper products. Nichols Engineering & Research Corp. of New York was marketing a liquid cyclone for cleaning sand and din particles from fiber suspensions in the pulp and paper industry by 1937. The designs during this period were such that the cyclones discharged a small amount of relatively high density material into a chamber connected to the cyclone apex which in turn discharged the collected dirt material intermittently. By the early 1940s hydrocyclones as we know them today began to appear both in the pulp and paper industry and in coal prorzssing.18 Considerable experimental work was done on small, mostly 3-in.- diam, cyclones operating at relatively high pressure drops, in the range of 50 psi, to remove very small contaminating particles from cellulose fiber in the production of high-grade writing papers in the paper industry.18|