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|Introduction Compared to the gyratory crusher, the cone crusher is character¬ized by its higher speed and a flat crushing chamber design which is intended to give a high capacity and reduction ratio for materials suitable to this type of processing. The aim is to retain material longer in the crushing chamber to do more work on material as it is being processed. A concept of how a piece of stone might flow through a secondary crushing chamber is shown in Fig. 45. The number of times material will be nipped during crushing will depend on material size, friability, and the geometry of the crushing chamber as well as its speed and eccentric throw. Cone crushers are usually specified in terms of closed-side setting (CSS) and a given quantity of material passing a particular square-mesh screen size. A criterion of product passing closed-side setting is often available. This value will vary according to the particular crusher design and the details of its applica¬tion. Essentially, cone crushers can be classified into distinct types, depending on their duty. Crusher sizes for all duties are described by terms arising out of common industry usage, such as 3-ft, 7-ft, etc., which refer to the crushing-head (mantle) diameter. At present the range of sizes available varies from approximately 2 to 10 ft diam. Weights vary in the range of 5 to 200 tons, and connected horsepowers range from 10 through 700. There are so many variations that specifics should be obtained from machine manufacturers. The crushing chambers that are fitted to various machines are also often referred to by terms arising out of common usage, such as standard for secondary crushers, and short head for tertiary crush¬ers, which refer specifically to the Symons design. Also used are more specific but equally vague descriptions, such as coarse, intermedi¬ate, and fine chambers. Some manufacturers such as Allis-Chalmers with their Hydrocone crushers refer to the model number of the machine by the feed opening and the diameter of the mantle. For example, a Model 10-84 Hydrocone crusher has an 84-in. diam man¬tle, and is capable of accepting a 10-in. diam sphere at the feed point to the crushing chamber. Rexnord and Telsmith define crushing cavi¬ties in their capacity tables as feed openings at minimum recommended discharge settings (closed-side settings). Each practice offers guidelines which should be carefully defined for the specific crushing problem. The utilization of a cone crusher depends on how well it is controlled and the features of the circuit in which it operates. Normally, it will operate in the range of 75 to 85% of the peak capacity. It is likely that industry pressures will call for a standarized de¬ applied crushing power. Experience has shown that the crushing process is more controllable if certain reduction ratios are adhered to for each stage. Technically, this is defined as that size of feed (in. or mm) of which 80% will pass, divided by the size of the product (in. or mm) which 80% will pass. Secondary Crushers These are the cone crushers which accept suitable feed size material either prepared by a primary crusher or occurring naturally, and reduce it to a size suitable for marketing in one stage, or make feed for subsequent crushing or grinding stages. Secondary crushers have feed openings of 4 to 25 in. in the larger (7-ft) models down to a 2'/a to 4 in. in the smallest 24-in. models. Reduction ratios normally range between 3:1 and seldom more than 5:1. In the 7-ft models, the cone crusher typically makes a product all passing 2 in., but this is dependent on the machine design and properties of the material being treated. Secondary crushers most commonly operate in open circuit. They also are operated in closed circuit with a vibrating screen, depending upon product requirements and conditions where the reduction ratio does not cause excessive power draw and build-up of circulating load. Screening ahead of secondary crushers is generally recommended, especially where the feed contains more than 25% material smaller than the desired closed-side setting. Tertiary Crushers These are cone crushers that normally take secondary crusher product and reduce it to a marketable product or make it suitable for subsequent comminution steps. The reduction achieved is a func¬tion of the crusher design and the properties of the material to be treated. The reduction ratio is normally in the range between 1.5 and 2 to 1, and seldom more than 3 to 1. The tertiary crusher normally operates in closed circuit with a vibrating screen and makes a product smaller than all passing 'h or 5/8 in. Fine Crushers Sometimes these machines are called sand crushers and are called by various manufacturer brand names, such as Gyradisc, Hydrofine, V.F.C., and others. A cross section of a Symons Gyradisc crusher is shown in Fig. 46. Essentially, these crushers would be used in a fourth-stage crushing operation, but could be called on to reduce a screened feed size fraction from a secondary or primary crushing operation. This type of crusher normally receives feed no coarser than 1'h in. that is scalped of all over-sized material and operates in closed circuit with a vibrating screen. For average materials, typical product is '/e in. top size, although a -10 mesh product can be produced on those materials having suitable characteristics. The crusher is nor¬mally operated in a separate circuit from the main crushing plant because of the variations in output rates that are caused by varying physical properties in the feed. The reduction ratio is generally less than 2:1, and circulating loads are generally high. More interparticle crushing takes place in these machines than with conventional cone crushers and capacities can be more sensitive to changes in moisture content, feed size graduation, and other physical properties. Design Features For the various applications, crusher manufacturers normally have a range of crushers of different sizes and power ratings to select from.|