Jaws Crushers

Wesis, N. L.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 27
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1985
General History The first jaw crusher in the US was patented about 1830, but the Blake crusher that has maintained a substantial advantage over other types was invented in 1858 by Eli Whitney Blake. For going on 150 years the jaw crusher has been an invaluable machine; even today, when gyratory crushers have assumed most of the burden of crushing large tonnages of large rock and ore, the jaw crusher has a firm place in the mining industry. It is interesting that soon after the invention of the Philetius Gates gyratory crusher in 1881, a contest between the first No. 2 Gates and Blake jaw crushers of equal gape showed the gyratory to be 3.2 times as fast. This foretold a day not far in the future when the jaw crusher would not be adequate on the largest jobs. In his Textbook of Ore Dressing (1909) R. H. Richards recom¬mended that the word breaker be used for all machines breaking to relatively large sizes (say to 5 in. or greater), and crusher be used for finer work. Even in the 1968 US Bureau of Mines dictionary of mining terms the work breaker is defined by Richards in this context. However, in modern US usage it is nearly limited to coal breaking. Over the years the jaw crusher has been developed in a variety of forms but it appears today in these three general forms: (I) Blake type, (2) Dodge type, and (3) single toggle (or overhead eccentric) type. All of these crushers have a fixed jaw and a moving jaw, between which the coarse rock fragments are intermittently caught and crushed. The three types are differentiated by the manner in which the movable jaw is moved in relation to the fixed. Types The Blake-type crusher is shown in cross section in Fig. 1. The simplicity and strength that have made it first among jaw crushers are evident. The movable jaw is suspended from a cross-shaft at its upper end, this shaft being carried in bearings on the sides of the frame. The actuating mechanism consists of an eccentric shaft, also supported in frame-mounted bearings, which imparts through a pit¬ man and a pair of toggles a reciprocating motion to the bottom of the swing jaw, the return movement being effected by several spring¬loaded rods. The whole is built into a box frame with the crushing chamber at one end. As in all jaw crushers, the eccentric shaft is equipped with a heavy flywheel that maintains an even speed through¬out each stroke. The Dodge-type crusher illustrated in Fig. 2 is simple, mechani¬cally. Its movable jaw, being pivoted below the discharge opening, has minimum movement at crusher discharge and maximum at crusher feed. Because the choke point coincides with the point of least motion, these crushers are of relatively low capacity, and the rapid action in the feed area gives the machine the advantages of large reduction ratio and closely sized product. Thus, it fits well into low-capacity operations like sample reduction. Besides low capacity, its principal disadvantages are tendency to pack and make fines. The single-toggle or overhead-eccentric type of jaw crusher (see Fig. 3) has gained in usage, starting as a modification of the Dodge idea in that the greatest movement of the movable jaw occurs at the top, and being gradually improved and strengthened to its position today where it covers just as wide a field of application as the Blake type from the standpoint of feed opening. The motion of the movable jaw is the result of the circular motion of the eccentric shaft at the top of the swing jaw combined with the rocking action imparted to the bottom by the inclined toggle plate. Because of light weight and mechanical simplicity, it is economical in small mills and portable plants where the rock is not as tough and abrasive as to punish the machine with excessive impact from shocks, or excessive wear result¬ing from the pronounced vertical component of motion.
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