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|Particle-size Distribution Specifications for Particulates. Feed to and finished products from size-reduction operations are defined in terms of the particulate sizes involved. It is also well to know whether the ultimate individual particle is being measured, or, if any aggregation or agglomeration of particles exists, whether this has been created by the size-reduction operation. The most complete description of a powder is given by its particle¬size distribution. This can be plotted in terms of cumulative percent oversize or undersize in relation to the diameters of particles, or it can be plotted as a distribution of the amounts present in each unit of diameter against the several diameters. It is common to employ a weight basis for percentage, but there are some data in the literature where frequency, or number of particles, is used. The basis of percent¬age, whether weight, frequency, or some less commonly used factor, should be specified, as also should be stated the diameter, its units, and preferably whether determined by sieve, settling velocity, or other¬wise. Fig. I presents two sets of distributions-ore cumulative and the other in unit intervals. The slopes of the 5-µ intervals of the cumulative curves are converted to percent per micron and plotted as a block, or histogram, from which smooth curves are derived. Powder A has a narrower, or tighter, size range for the bulk of its weight than powder B. Both materials have the same weights below and above the size marked by the arrow. Simpler treatments of distribution are possible. In some cases the significant value is the top size. Since the 100% point is dubious, some amount, as 95 or 98%, so specified, can be called top size. In other cases the percent on some sieve helps define coarseness. Merely stating that all, or all but a small percentage, passes a given sieve is inadequate for defining the true fineness or a material. Complete parti¬cle-size analysis to show the distribution is essential for most compari¬sons and calculations. Particle-Size Equations. A number of equations have been pro¬posed to correlate the quantity of a particulate material with its parti¬cle size to obtain a distribution relationship. 's 19 In the literature it is often assumed that a powder must follow some distribution, such as the Rosin-Rammler-Bennett:20, 21|