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|Bacteria, algae and fungi react to heavy metals in their environment by immobilizing, mobilizing and/or transforming metals. Microorganisms carry out these changes by (1) precipitating metals outside of the microbial cell, (2) binding and complexing metals to the outside of the microbial cell's protective coating, (3) accumulating metals inside of the microbial cell, or (4) transforming metals by oxidation, reduction, methylation or demethylation. Most of these mechanisms are operative in constructed aerobic and anaerobic wetlands for metal's remediation. Several more advanced biotechnologies for metal's removal from aqueous streams have been introduced, but have not been widely accepted commercially.|