Development and Application of the TT Anti?Friction Washer for Use with Tensioned Roof Bolt Systems

Cook, Thomas A.
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Pages: 5
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2014
The effectiveness of tensioned roof bolt systems has been well researched and documented over the years (Stankus, 1990, 1991, 1997; Guo, 1997; Denton, 2000; Su, 2007). Higher and more consistent installed tension has been shown to improve the beaming effect and associated roof stability especially in highly-stressed, weak, laminated roof strata. To accomplish higher and more consistent bolt-installed tensions, various types of anti-friction washers have been developed and applied to many types of tensioned roof bolt systems. In addition to increasing bolt-installed tension, these washers also provide a lubricating effect that minimizes sparking during the bolt torqueing cycle. The most popular and widely used anti-friction washer configuration consists of a plastic washer that is used in conjunction with a standard hardened steel washer. This washer configuration has performed well in the field in terms of increasing the bolt-installed tension (or plate load) and the related tension/torque ratio (the amount of tension achieved per one ft-lb of applied torque). However, the installed tension does not always maintain consistency. One reason for this inconsistency is that the plastic anti-friction washer sometimes dislodges and shreds or tears before the bolt torqueing cycle is complete. This condition prevents the plastic washer from acting as an anti-friction medium for the entire torqueing cycle. Jennmar Corporation and Keystone Mining Services, LLC, developed the ?TT? washer in early 2012. The ?TT? anti-friction washer is comprised of two zinc-coated (galvanized) hardened steel washers that are joined together with an exclusive polymer. The ?TT? washer has been extensively tested and applied in the Sewickley, Pittsburgh, and Indiana #5 coal seams. The test results indicate an average increase in installed load and tension/torque ratio of 20%. More importantly, the installed load consistency improved, with a significant reduction in the standard deviation of values. This paper will detail the development and testing of the ?TT? anti-friction washer with case studies of actual mine applications.
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