Temperature, Velocity, Density, And Moisture In Drilled Shafts

Haramy, Khamis Y.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 12
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2007
Curing temperature, density, and moisture significantly affect the velocity measured in the crosshole sonic logging, the rate of strength gain, and the final strength of concrete in drilled shafts and, thereby, affect their structure capacities. Non-destructive field measurements can enhance the QA/QC program by measuring temperature, density, moisture, and sonic velocity of curing concrete during the construction and curing of drilled shafts. The curing environment can greatly affect the concrete strength, and requires close attention during construction. This article shares the experience with the NDE technology used in the QA/QC program in the drilled shaft construction. To understand the mechanism by which a drilled shaft cures under field conditions, two newly constructed drilled shafts were monitored for up to seven days, immediately following concrete placement using the following geophysical logging methods: a) temperature logging; b) crosshole sonic logging; c) gamma-gamma density logging; and d) neutron-moisture logging. One additional drilled shaft was also monitored to a shorter duration. Temperatures were monitored using the sensor in access tubes and/or thermocouples embedded at the center of a drilled shaft and near its reinforcing cage. For a small shaft under 1m diameter, curing temperatures appeared to peak at 41° ? 68° C at different depths at around 24-hour curing time and decreased to and stabilized at around 23° ? 35° C in 6 days. The shaft curing rate varied with depth, shaft diameter, surrounding geo-material types, and the depth of ground water. CSL logging was performed in one shaft from top to bottom from six access tubes and limited monitoring in another shaft. The velocity increased with curing time till 4 to 7 days, and, at a specific time, the velocity appeared to be inversely correlated to curing temperatures. The gamma-gamma density log (GDL) results from 5 different depths were obtained at a source-detector separation of 355 mm. The average density was found to increase with curing time, but decrease slightly in 3 to 5 days. At a given time the GDL density curves seemed to correlate with the neutron monitoring logging (NML) moisture curve. The NML moisture was monitored from 1st to 6th day after concrete placement. The moisture was highest when surrounded by bedrock, then clay, and sand due to different hydration rates.
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