Ground Improvement Utilizing Vibro Probes Eliminates Liquefaction Concern For A Bridge Foundation

Mohammad, Aly M.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2007
Croton Point Avenue Bridge carries Croton Avenue over Metro-North main tracks at Harmon Rail Yard in Westchester County, New York. The new bridge is 1100 foot long and 36 foot wide nine span structure with three spans continuous units. The spans are steel multi-stringers, composite with concrete deck. The piers are solid wall piers and the foundations are spread footings. During the design of the bridge foundations it was determined that the relatively loose to medium dense sand layer is susceptible to liquefaction under a design earthquake with a seismic coefficient of 0.15g. Several foundation options were considered for the new bridge including both shallow and deep foundations. It was determined that the most cost effective alternative is to use spread footing foundations supported on densified soils. Vibratory probes were utilized to densify the loose to medium dense sand layer and reduce the risk of liquefaction. Densification test sections were performed to determine the optimum spacing for the vibro probes. The test sections included performing piezocone tests before and after the densification to compare the increase in relative density of the sand. In addition, ground surface settlement due to the vibro probes was measured and correlated to the increase of soil relative density. The paper will present the results of the ground improvement method utilized and correlate the spacing of the vibro probes and the increase in relative density and the results of the piezocone tests performed before and after the densification. It was found that the vibro probes are not as effective as thought at shallow depth below the ground surface. It is believed that the results and finding presented in this paper will benefit both the design and construction industries by providing a relatively cost effective means to improve the soils
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