Foundations For Offshore Wind Energy Converters - A Review Of Some Current Scandinavian Development Projects

Viking, K.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2013
This article deals with some of the civil engineering related problems to be encountered when offshore wind energy projects transform from prototype offshore wind energy converter farms, developed and installed during the 1990?s, to commercial farms that?s currently planned to be built. The offshore wind energy converter (OWEC) installations encounter a wide range of problems, only partial of these are geotechnical. In Europe both onshore and offshore wind farms have, from a historical point of view, usually been founded by using the monopole technique, installed with traditional impact hammers, or by using gravitational foundations. However, the rapid development of bigger turbines and larger wind farms, together with increasing considerations of fatigue aspects, has lead to financial benefits of developing and exploring other foundation techniques. This paper reviews some Scandinavian experiences regarding critical components of the design phase in relation to connecting the superstructure to the ground, and some of the main considerations of how the loads applied to the structure are transferred to the surrounding soil.
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