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|Fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion in a nickel flash smelter have been investigated by numerical modelling and flow visualisation. The three-dimensional numerical model incorporates turbulent two-phase fluid dynamics, radiative heat transfer and combustion. The main features include the use of the k-E turbulence model, the Lagrangian tracking of particles, radiative heat transfer based on the spherical harmonics method, and chemical reactions. The predicted flow fields are in good agreement with data obtained from a series of flow visualisation experiments on a cold water model. The interaction mechanism between the fluid flow and the solid particles is examined for a range of particle sizes both with and without injected oil in a series of simulations. The heat transfer in the shaft is dominated by combustion and radiation, whereas the ignition of particles is influenced by the particle size and the added oil. Flow and temperature fields for both gas and solid particles are presented as well as the fraction of sulphur removed from the particles.|