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|Flow simulations have been performed on the flash-smelting burners currently used at KNS. This paper presents studies of the heat transfer between gas and particles at the burner exit. Gas and particle temperatures, velocity and concentration profiles of the two-phase flow are calculated by the mathematical model. The predicted gas temperatures have been favourably compared against values measured by thermocouples placed near the burners in the flash furnace. The predicted particle temperatures are also reasonable when compared with the measured temperatures.|