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|In reviewing recent developments in the process mineralogy of gold it is convenient to distinguish between visible (>0.1 pm) and invisible gold (1 - 2 pm in size in polished section; these can scan the surface of a polished section, identifying the gold minerals, recording co-ordinates of the grains for subsequent examination, and making measurements of areas and sizes of the grains. However, problems of sample reliresentivity in polished section mean that such data may not give good quantification of gold mineral proportions and liberation/locking characteristics and other methods are required for this (amalgamation, cyanidation, ultra-fine milling and cyanidation). Characterisation of invisible gold in bulk material (eg a sulphide concentrate) can be done by mineral separation, ultra-fine milling and cyanidation or by quantitative point analyses of a large number of mineral grains. Analytical methods include electron microprobe analysis (detection limit normally -200 ppm but -10 ppm by using special techniques), ion microprobe analysis (secondary ion mass spectrometry - SIMS; detection limit -0.2 ppm) or proton microprobe analysis (PIXE; detection limit|