The Application of Physical Modelling to the Undersea Mining Conditions at Kozlu Mine in Turkey

Bicer N,
Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 17
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1988
Current problems in predicting sub-surface strata movement and fracture development due to longwall mining have highlighted the need for more accurate, dependable methods of physical modelling of rock mechanics problems which are beyond the capabilities of current mathematical techniques. Physical model studies of the caved zone above the working faces up to the base of a water source are of importance in attempting to understand changes in mass permeability due to induced fracture zones and the resulting ground water conditions. Turkey's most important supplies of coking coals are to be found within the hard coal resources of the Black Sea coast. Coal seams up to 9 metres thick, dipping at angles as steep as 90 degrees are being successfully mined at the Kozlu Mine. Since 1956, mining operations have been carried out under the sea in dry conditions. The undersea mining conditions of the Kozlu Mine have been investigated using scaled physical models constructed from artificial materials which satisfied necessary scaling requirements. Models representing the in-situ conditions were tested and the following extraction sequence was employed: 1. The Sulu Seam extraction 2. The Acilik Seam extraction (as two slices) 3. The Piric Seam extraction. The displacement of the fixed reference points were subsequently measured using a high precision photogrammetric technique and induced horizontal and vertical strains were calculated.
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