Geological Controls on the Flow of Groundwater into Underground Excavations

Deaves AP, ; Bell FG, ; Culshaw MG,
Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1988
The accurate prediction both of the water ingress into sub-surface excavations and the nearby groundwater pressures is of fundamental importance to the control of the stability and flooding of tunnels or mines constructed below the water table. Predic- tions are usually based on laboratory and in situ permeability determinations together with observations of groundwater conditions in boreholes. Although established theoretical methods provide a basis for prediction, the actual ingress depends on many factors. The objective of this paper is to explore the geological controls on groundwater conditions, and the available methods of prediction of both groundwater flow and pressure are outlined. Salient points are emphasised by reference to a case history involving the construc- tion of a tunnel in a faulted and mixed sequence of sandstones, siltstones, shales and coals. Water ingress quantities have been monitored for a variety geological and geotechnical conditions including heavily faulted and mine disturbed ground. The overall results are discussed with reference to the relevant hydrological and geologi- cal conditions in terms of the geological structure, lithology and rockmass condition as well as the construction methods.
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