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|Crushing for the gold industry involves fine crushing and a degree of primary milling, and this presents new problems and challenges, partiuclarly on many of the new ore-bodies now being opened up. All of this calls for a better understanding of some of the basics of fine crushing and milling. Accordingly, in this paper the "typical" contemporary Australian gold mining operation is firstly delineated, in terms of representative ore types and typical crushing and milling tasks. Then some of the technical and economic basics related to fine crushing are re-examined, including: energy relationships in crushing and milling; concepts of reduction ratio; recirculating load controversies; and questions of realistic economics in crushing gold ores. The economics of the typical gold mining operation are shown to be rather marginal; not the lavish "bonanza" many may imagine. Likewise, crushing cost expectations are frequently quite Unrealistic.|