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|The efficient design of carbon-in-pulp (C.I.P.) plants involves the integration of both process engineering and design engineering.Many recently constructed plants have not recognised the above interrelationship, and as such have incurred higher capital and operating costs than were in reality necessary. This has been compounded in some cases by slavishly following the design of plants where process conditions are different for the ore characteristics in question, thus perpetuating design errors that finally become industry "accepted practice".In the paper that is to be presented the unit operations of crushing, grinding, classification, leaching, adsorption, desorption and electrowinning in C.I.P. plants will be discussed with reference to the integration of process and design engineering.|