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|Techniques for the optimisation of open pit design and development are now accepted as standard practice in the mining industry. These techniques are used to analyse the impacts on project profitability of factors such as product price, slope design criteria and equipment selection. A fundamental assumption used in this type of analysis is that dump and stockpile designs and sequencing are predetermined. The cost of haulage for a typical truck shovel mining operation is in the range of 25 - 50 per cent of mine operating costs. Substantial cost savings can be achieved by optimisation of dump design and location of associated road and ramp systems.Factors which affect both the operation and total cost of dumping include; Ramp gradients and location, road design, dump placement and shape, dumping height, slope design (interim and final), slope stability, environmental requirements and equipment selection. This paper discusses these factors and their effects on the total mining operation and project value. Reference is made to case studies in which some of these factors have had a significant impact.|