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|The most common reason for gold-bearing deposits being refractory is the presence of sulphides; in many cases these interfering minerals contain arsenic, antimony, or other environmentally-sensitive elements. A number of processes have been proposed or developed for pre-oxidation of interfering minerals. In most cases developers have focussed on gold recovery and capital costs, with relatively little data on the deportment or form of these potentially harmful elements. This paper surveys recent work connected with pressure pre-oxidation processes. Data from pilot plant treatment of refractory gold materials, using the nitric acid Redox process, is discussed along with the attendant flowsheet and engineering implications. Four refractory gold-bearing materials have also been tested at the University of South Australia for arsenic and antimony deportments.|